Industry 4.0 is the latest trend in industrial automation, with the introduction of digital components in the machines hall. The benefit of this is faster and more efficient processes; however, it also comes with its own risks. Attacks on the production can now be carried out digitally rather than just physically on site, leading to far-reaching problems in the production process, affecting the quantity produced and thus sales. Therefore, it is essential to protect the availability and integrity of these systems.
Protecting OT (operational technology) and IT (information technology) is essential in ensuring operational continuity. The IT systems protect the data and communication, while the OT systems protect the production processes. OT systems are strategically important to the production process, so it is necessary to secure them from external interference.
Architectural approaches can be used to protect OT and IT, but they come with their own pros and cons. For instance, a segmented architecture separates the two systems, protecting each while allowing them to communicate with one another. However, this approach might lead to complications such as more interfaces and higher costs. A homogenous administration architecture that combines IT and OT offers a more seamless approach with simpler interfaces, but IT and OT security aspects might not be well-defined in this case.
A business impact analysis is a way out. It identifies the business-critical systems and their dependencies, leading to a risk assessment and identifying suitable measures for the protection of these systems. The principles of network segmentation can provide a checklist for evaluating the potential risks associated with the interconnection between IT and OT systems.
Typical weak points in the OT context arise from the desire to minimize network segmentation using multiple gateways and one-way-gate solutions where systems are exempted from consistent updates. OT systems have longer lifetimes than IT systems, whereas replacing them is disruptive, which leads to a lack of updates. This can mostly be mitigated by using a comprehensive asset management solution, ensuring consistent updates of all gateways and ensuring that all systems are well-monitored.
An uncertainty factor arises with service providers and partners. Outsourcing to a service provider leaves the responsibility to the provider to secure the contracted system. This means the risks are not evenly distributed. Service providers might also insist on unrestricted access and discard security measures hindering remote maintenance. Therefore, security aspects and risks must be thoroughly checked and factored in.
In conclusion, it is necessary to start carefully when it comes to protecting OT and IT in Industry 4.0. This means identifying the risks, implementing effective measures through network segmentation and consistent updates of all systems, and factoring in the risks associated with service providers and partners. These steps will ensure operational continuity and ultimately lead to higher productivity and profitability in the long term.